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AES was developed by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the mid 1990s when organizations across government, academia and industry began working on encryption standards. In 2002, NIST selected AES as America's encryption standard. NIST's AES is the basis of the U.S. Common Criteria for Security Evaluation, endorsed by more than 210 countries and many industry and government groups (including ETSI). AES has been adopted by the UE to encrypt all communication equipment and services, and remains the de facto standard.

One drawback of AES is that it only uses a secret key of 128, 192 or 256 bits. This limits the extend to which the encryption can be broken using brute-force or quantum attacks. Also, as only three key sizes are supported, a hacker requiring the smallest possible key size will have a significant advantage over their adversaries.

AES is a block algorithm, meaning that an input (plaintext) is encrypted by XOR-ing it with a block of the encryption key, a process called "feedback" or "Feistel" substitution. An unaltered input is transformed into output by selecting each successive input bit and XOR-ing it with the most significant bit (MSB) of the key, to the left of an existing 1 and left-shifting the result by the number of key bits used. Back-substitution gives the original plaintext (equivalently, AES can be read from right to left, starting with the MSB as the most significant bit). Since AES uses a key size of 128, 192 or 256 bits, the MSB is the least significant bit of the key.

For a cipher and key pair, P=E(K,C), a brute-force attack (the best known in the technical literature) means that for every possible key, the attacker should try to find a plaintext that was encrypted to the same ciphertext, using the same key. This is similar to the word search puzzle, in which the attacker tries to find the correct word in a tessellation of a given shape. This requires a standard computer. d2c66b5586