Plasma acylcarnitine levels are elevated by physiological conditions such as fasting and exercise but also in states of insulin resistance and obesity. To elucidate the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to plasma acylcarnitines in the fasting state and during exercise in humans. In 2 independent studies, young healthy males were fasted overnight and performed an acute bout of exercise to investigate either acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle biopsies and arterial-to-venous plasma differences over the exercising and resting leg (n = 9) or the flux over the hepato-splanchnic bed (n = 10). In the fasting state, a pronounced release of C2- and C3-carnitines from the hepato-splanchnic bed and an uptake of free carnitine by the legs were detected. Exercise further increased the release of C3-carnitine from the hepato-splanchnic bed and the uptake of free carnitine in the exercising leg. In plasma and in the exercising muscle, exercise induced an increase of most acylcarnitines followed by a rapid decline to preexercise values during recovery. In contrast, free carnitine was decreased in the exercising muscle and quickly restored thereafter. C8-, C10-, C10:1-, C12-, and C12:1-carnitines were released from the exercising leg and simultaneously; C6, C8, C10, C10:1, C14, and C16:1 were taken up by the hepato-splanchnic. These data provide novel insight to the organo-specific release/uptake of acylcarnitines. The liver is a major contributor to systemic short chain acylcarnitines, whereas the muscle tissue releases mostly medium chain acylcarnitines during exercise, indicating that other tissues are contributing to the systemic increase in long chain acylcarnitines.
Effects of fast ions on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in a Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma with the central beta value (=pressure normalized by the magnetic pressure) 4% have been investigated with hybrid simulations for energetic particles interacting with an MHD fluid. When fast ions are neglected, it is found that the dominant instability is an ideal interchange mode with the dominant harmonic m/n = 2/1, where m, n are respectively the poloidal and toroidal numbers. The spatial peak location of the m/n = 2/1 harmonic is close to the ι = 1/2 magnetic surface located at r/a = 0.29, where ι is the rotational transform and r/a is the normalized radius. The second unstable mode is a resistive interchange mode with m/n =3/2 that peaks at r/a = 0.65 nearby the ι = 2/3 surface, which grows more slowly than the m/n = 2/1 mode. The nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 3/2 and 2/1 mode results in the growth of the m/n = 5/3 mode and other modes leading to the global reduction and flattening of the pressure profile. When fast ions are considered with the central beta value 0.2% and the total pressure profile is kept the same, the ideal interchange mode with m/n = 2/1 located close to the plasma center is stabilized while the resistive interchange mode with m/n = 3/2 located far from the plasma center is less affected. The stabilization is attributed to the reduction of bulk pressure gradient, which is the dilution of the free energy source, because the energy transfer between the fast ions and the interchange modes is found to be negligible. For higher fast-ion pressure, Alfvén eigenmodes are destabilized by fast ions.
Current-voltage (I-V) curves have been measured, independent of the main discharge, for electricity passing through the steady state fast flowing 'afterglow' plasma of a low power dc glow discharge in Ar. Voltage profiles along the axial line of conduction have been mapped using fixed probes and potentiometry, and the mass spectra of cations emerging from the downstream sampling Cone, also acting as a probe anode, were recorded simultaneously. Floating double probe experiments were also carried out. The electrical behavior is consistent with the well established I-V characteristics of such discharges, but does not comply with classical plasma theory predictions. The plasma decays along the line of conduction, with a lifetime of approximately 1 ms, despite carrying a steady state current, and its potential is below that of the large surface area anode voltage; a situation which cannot exist in the presence of a conventional free ion-electron plasma, unless the electron temperature is super cold. Currents, large by comparison with the main discharge current, and independent of it, are induced to flow through the downstream plasma, from the Anode (acting as a cathode) to the anodic ion exit Cone, induced by electron impact ionisation at the anode, but without necessarily increasing the plasma density. It appears to be conducted by direct charge transfer between a part of the anode surface (acting as cathode to the auxiliary circuit) and the plasma, without secondary electron emission or heating, which suggests the direct involvement of Rydberg atom intermediates. The reaction energy defect (= the work function of the electrode surface) fits with the plasma potential threshold observed for the cathodic reaction to occur. A true free ion-electron plasma is readily detected by the observation of cations at the anode surface, when induced at the downstream anode, at high bias voltages, by the electron impact ionisation in the boundary region. In contrast to the classical
When blood plasma proteins are depleted by bleeding, with return of the washed red cells (plasmapheresis) it is possible to bring dogs to a steady state of hypoproteinemia and a uniform plasma protein production on a basal low protein diet. These dogs are clinically normal with normal appetite, no anemia and normal nitrogen metabolism. These dogs become test subjects by which various factors relating to plasma protein production may be tested. The normal dog (10 to 13 kg.) has a substantial reserve store of plasma protein building material (10 to 60+ gm.) which requires 2 to 6 weeks plasmapheresis for its complete removal. After this period the dog will produce uniform amounts of plasma protein each week on a fixed basal diet. Dogs previously depleted by plasmapheresis and then permitted to return to normal during a long rest period of many weeks, may show much higher reserve stores of protein building material in subsequent periods of plasma depletion (see Table 1). Under uniform conditions of low protein diet intake when plasmapheresis is discontinued for 2 weeks the plasma protein building material is stored quantitatively in the body and can subsequently be recovered (Table 4) in the next 2 to 3 weeks of plasmapheresis. Given complete depletion of plasma protein building reserve stores the dog can produce very little (2± gm. per week) plasma protein on a protein-free diet. This may be related to the wear and tear of body protein and conservation of these split products. Abscesses produced in a depleted dog during a fast may cause some excess production of plasma protein which is probably related to products of tissue destruction conserved for protein anabolism. Gelatin alone added to the basal diet causes very little plasma protein production but when supplemented by tryptophane gives a large protein output, while tryptophane alone is inert. PMID:19870748
The present report concerns several post-mortem variables examined in sand rats that were either maintained on a vegetal diet (control animals) or exposed first during a 20-day transition period to a mixed diet consisting of a fixed amount of a hypercaloric food and decreasing amounts of the vegetal food and then to a 30-day experimental period of exposure to the hypercaloric food. During the latter period, all animals were either given free access to food or fasting daily for 15 h, i.e. from 5.00 p.m. to 8.00 a.m. The body weight, liver wet weight, pancreas wet weight, plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c concentration, plasma insulin concentration, insulinogenic index, insulin resistance HOMA, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentration, liver triglyceride and phospholipid content were all measured. Pancreatic islet (insulin, GLUT2) and liver (lipid droplets) histology were also examined. The main findings consisted in a lower body weight of fasting than non-fasting animals, a higher liver weight in non-diabetic and diabetic rats than in control non-fasting (but not so in fasting) animals, a decrease of pancreas weight in non-diabetic and diabetic as distinct from control animals, a fasting-induced decrease in plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance HOMA, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and triglyceride liver content. 2b1af7f3a8