As previously reported4, neither ABO blood types nor secretor status had an impact on alpha- and beta-diversity (Extended Data Fig. 7a). However, we observed that the effects of ABO genotypes on F. lactaris levels, underlying the association, were largely driven by secretor status, with increased abundances in secretor individuals from genotype groups rs545971:CT and rs545971:TT, A and AB blood type groups, but not in rs545971:CC genotype, or B and O blood type individuals (Fig. 4a). Levels in nonsecretors did not vary across ABO genotypes or blood types. Despite a slight increase in blood type A secretors, Collinsella only remained minimally affected by secretor status or blood group (Extended Data Fig. 7b). Taken together, this suggests that the secretion of soluble A- and B-antigens strongly affects F. lactaris in the gut, possibly through reduced opportunity to use them as substrate. Levels of both F. lactaris and Collinsella were significantly higher when individuals were predicted to secrete A-, B- and AB-antigens in their gut mucosa (Extended Data Fig. 7c).
The ABO gene expresses a glycosyltransferase in many cell types, which determines the ABO blood group of an individual by modifying the oligosaccharides on cell-surface glycoproteins. A comparison of humans and nonhuman primates has identified ABO (along with the major histocompatibility complex) as harboring ancient multiallelic polymorphisms that are maintained across species65,66. Many infectious diseases such as norovirus infection, bacterial meningitis, malaria, cholera67 or even more recently SARS-CoV-2 (refs. 68,69) are associated with host blood type and secretor status67, suggesting that infection could be a driver of a strong balancing selection that has maintained ABO polymorphisms. Furthermore, blood type variation has been linked to various chronic diseases67, such as heart and vascular diseases, gastric cancers, diabetes, asthma or even dementia67. As many of these chronic diseases are also associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, this prompts an interesting but largely unexplored parallel between gut commensals, blood types and disease38. Our study confirms previous findings4 that secretor status or blood types do not seem to globally affect gut microbial alpha- or beta-diversity. It also confirms reports from two very recent studies: first, a meta-analysis across five German cohorts, using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the gut microbiota, linked Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium to ABO and FUT2 (ref. 70). The second study functionally associated bacterial lactose and galactose degradation genes to ABO variation in a cohort of 3,432 Chinese individuals71. Taken together, these findings suggest a broad association of ABO polymorphisms with microbial variation in various human populations.
Gut microbial composition was represented as the relative abundance of taxa. For each metagenome at phylum, class, order, family, genus and species levels, the relative abundance of a taxon was computed as the proportion of reads assigned to the clade rooted at this taxon among total classified reads. The relative abundance of a taxon with no reads assigned in a metagenome was considered as zero in the corresponding profile. For the purpose of this association study and because of reduced accuracy and power when considering rare taxa, we focused on common and relatively abundant microbial taxa, defined as prevalent in >25% of studied individuals, and defined with at least ten mapped reads per individual. For the purpose of association, and as previous studies have reported that only some microbial taxa are inheritable102, we also removed taxa with zero SNP heritability. This filtering resulted in a microbial dataset composed of a total of 2,801 taxa, including 59 phyla, 95 classes, 187 orders, 415 families, 922 genera and 1,123 species.
CBSE Class 10 Social Science Sample Paper 2023 has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education. Therefore you can now download Class 10 Social Science Sample Papers with Solutions PDF here on aglasem. This CBSE Class 10 sample paper has model questions answers from latest Social Science syllabus. Thus if you solve this Social Science sample paper, then you can easily score high marks in the 10th board exams 2022-2023.
The Central Board of Secondary Education has released class 10 sample papers for the subject Social Science for academic session 2022-2023. In addition the board has released its marking scheme. The links to download Social Science Sample Paper Class 10 2022-2023 with Solutions are as follows.
The Central Board of Secondary Education has published class 10 sample paper 2023 at cbseacademic.nic.in. You can also get it from cbse.gov.in. The CBSE sample paper 2022-2023 is for February-April 2023 board exams. Likewise the CBSE sample paper 2023-2024 is for 10th exams in February-April 2024. While you can download latest solved class 10 sample paper PDFs for CBSE 10 Social Science here. For other subjects, use the following.
This national level education board in India has also released sample papers for other classes. CBSE sample question papers help you know exactly what to expect in board exams. You understand difficulty level, exam pattern, marking scheme with the Class X 2022-2023 SQP and MS and Class X 2023-2024 SQP and MS. They are as follows.
Sometimes, people confuse NCERT books with CBSE Books, there are some books which CBSE itself prescribes. You can check those CBSE books here. We also provide NCERT Exemplar for all classes. You can download all of them for free at teachoo.
Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) are the key ideas in science that have broad importance within or across multiple science or engineering disciplines. These core ideas build on each other as students progress through grade levels and are grouped into the following four domains: Physical Science, Life Science, Earth and Space Science, and Engineering.
Subject experts have created these books using simple language so that students can easily understand every concept without having any doubt. Therefore, to help you, we have provided the NCERT books for Class 8 Social in English as well as Hindi. Continue reading the article to learn more about NCERT books for class 8 social science and other details.
NCERT Social Science book class 8 books attempt to make students more aware of their environment. This book has been thoughtfully put together with well-chosen themes that will teach students about a distinct part of their surroundings. Furthermore, the activity portion of this Class 8 NCERT SST book will help students score well in their final exams.
Here, you can find the Objective Section Maps, Self Practice Paper Solutions and Self Assessment Paper Solutions in PDF form. These PDFs are absolutely free to download, without you having to enter any login information.
You can download free ICSE Specimen Sample Papers for Class 10 Maths Physics Chemistry & All Subjects 2022-23 subject-wise along with their Marking Scheme and Solutions. These resources are available for download FREE of cost.
ICSE applicant should practise ICSE specimen sample question papers class 10 to become familiar with the test format and the kind of questions that will be asked. To achieve good grades, it is also necessary to have proper instruction, the appropriate study resources, and top-notch example papers.
Students can attain their academic goals and be ready for exams with the aid of ICSE specimen sample question papers class 10. Making last-minute preparations can be challenging with so much online information available. Students can complete these example test questions since they will have access to all the crucial questions in one location. Sample Papers will boost their exam results and increase their productivity.
Download and practice the latest 2023 CBSE Sample papers for class 10 with the solution (Maths, Science, Social Science, English, Hindi) for the board exam. Well researched sample question papers of class 10 based on the new CBSE board exam question paper pattern. Hello! dear students, one more precious year of your school life is passing away, and this time, it is a crucial one, because you will be called a high school passed after this.
English is an interesting and scoring subject because there are letters, short notes, articles, unseen passage, word errors, literature questions, etc. And you have to be perfect with all these things and this will happen only if you practice. So Hurry up and start your exam preparation with these class 10 English sample papers.
There is a rumor about social science in class 10. And the rumor is that you have to write a long answer and fill in as many pages you can in the exam. But rumors are always rumoring and this rumor is wrong. You should know the facts then only you can write on this subject. Like Hindi, Social Science is also a scoring subject where you can get 100 out of 100 marks. Read your textbook and know the facts because Social Science is a facts-based subject. Give your time to solve these class 10 Social Science sample papers. Practicing these sample papers will sharpen your board exam preparation.
Every year CBSE publishes sample papers for class 10 and class 12. To make sure that students will follow the pattern of the latest sample papers for their board exam preparation. You can download the latest Sample questions Papers and marking scheme (solution) for all subjects given below and practice these. And You should follow the paper pattern also. Here are the Latest official CBSE sample papers for class 10 including all major subjects. 2b1af7f3a8