Shell eggs [14,15]. Eggs with chipped, cracked, or broken shells are not included in the sample. Remove any adherent material from the egg shell surface. Disinfect egg surface with a solution consisting of 3 parts of 70% alcohol (ethyl or isopropyl) to 1 part iodine/potassium iodide solution. Prepare 70% alcohol solution either by diluting 700 ml 100% alcohol with sterile distilled water for a final volume of 1,000 ml or by diluting 700 ml 95% alcohol with sterile distilled water for a final volume of 950 ml. Prepare iodine/potassium iodide solution by dissolving 100 g potassium iodide in 200-300 ml sterile distilled water. Add 50 g iodine and heat gently with constant mixing until the iodine is dissolved. Dilute the iodine/potassium iodide solution to 1,000 ml with sterile distilled water. Store iodine/potassium iodide solution in an amber glass-stoppered bottle in the dark if not used immediately. Prepare the disinfection solution by adding 250 ml iodine/potassium iodide solution to 750 ml 70% alcohol solution and mix well. Submerge eggs in disinfection solution for 10 seconds (make sure not less than 10 seconds). Remove eggs from the solution and allow to air dry. Each sample shall consist of twenty (20) eggs, for a total of fifty (50) samples per poultry house. Eggs are cracked aseptically into a 4L sterile beaker or other suitable container by gloved hands, with a change of gloves between samples. Mix samples thoroughly with a sterile tool by gloved hands until yolks are completely mixed with the albumen, with a change of gloves between samples. Preenrich the 20-egg sample by adding 2 L sterile Trypticase soy broth (TSB; room temperature) and mix well with a sterile tool. Cover securely and incubate 24 ± 2 h at 35°C. Continue as in D, 1-11, below.
Instant. Aseptically weigh 25 g sample into sterile beaker (250 ml) or other appropriate container. Using sterile glass or paper funnel (made with tape to withstand autoclaving), pour 25 g analytical unit gently and slowly over surface of 225 ml brilliant green water contained in sterile 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask or other appropriate container. Alternatively, 25 g analytical units may be composited and poured over the surface of proportionately larger volumes of brilliant green water. Prepare brilliant green water by adding 2 ml 1% brilliant green dye solution per 1000 ml sterile distilled water. Let container stand undisturbed for 60 ± 5 min. Incubate loosely capped container, without mixing or pH adjustment, for 24 ± 2 h at 35°C. Continue as in D, 1-11, below.
Onion flakes, onion powder, garlic flakes. Aseptically weigh 25 g sample into sterile, wide-mouth, screw-cap jar (500 ml) or other appropriate container. Preenrich sample in TSB with added K2SO3 (5 g K2SO3 per 1000 ml TSB, resulting in final 0.5% K2SO3 concentration). Add K2SO3 to broth before autoclaving 225 ml volumes in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks at 121°C for 15 min. After autoclaving, aseptically determine and, if necessary, adjust final volume to 225 ml. Add 225 ml sterile TSB with added K2SO3 to sample and mix well. Continue as in C-10a.
Pig ears and other types of dog chew pieces. Place 1 piece (or 2-3 pieces if smaller sizes) from each sample unit into sterile plastic bag. Place bag into large beaker or other suitable container. Add sterile lactose broth at a 1:9 sample-to-broth (g/ml) ratio to cover pieces (see A, 23-24, above). Mix well by swirling and let stand 60 ± 5 min at room temperature. Mix well by swirling and determine pH with test paper. Adjust pH, if necessary, to 6.8 ± 0.2. Add either steamed (15 min) Tergitol Anionic 7 or steamed (15 min) Triton X-100 up to a 1% concentration. For example, if 225 ml lactose broth is added, the maximum volume of added surfactant is 2.25 ml. Limit use of these surfactants to minimum quantity to initiate foaming. Incubate 24 ± 2 h at 35°C. Continue as in D, 1-11, below.
Place the cantaloupe into a sterile plastic bag. Add enough UP broth to allow the cantaloupe to float. The volume of UP broth may be 1.5 times the weight of the cantaloupes. For example, cantaloupes weighing 1500 g will probably need a volume of approximately 2250 ml UP broth to float. Add more broth, if necessary. Place the plastic bag, with cantaloupes and UP broth, into a 5 liter beaker, or other appropriate container, for support during incubation. Allow the open-end flap of the plastic bag to "fold over" so as to form a secure, but not air-tight, closure during incubation.
Place the mango into a sterile plastic bag. Add enough BPW to allow the mango to float. The volume of BPW may be 1.0 times the weight of the mangoes. For example, mangoes weighing 500 g will probably need a volume of approximately 500 ml BPW broth to float. Add more broth, if necessary. Place the plastic bag, with mangoes and BPW broth, into a 5 liter beaker, or other appropriate container, for support during incubation.
Place the tomato into a sterile plastic bag or other suitable container (sterile foil covered beaker can be used). Add enough UP broth to allow the tomato to float. The volume of UP broth may be 1.0 times the weight of the tomato. For example, tomatoes weighing 300 g will probably need a volume of approximately 300 ml UP broth to float. Add more, if necessary. Place the plastic bag (if used), with tomato and UP broth, into a sterile beaker (beaker size is dependent on the size of the tomato), or other appropriate container, for support during incubation. Allow the open-end flap of the plastic bag to "fold over" so as to form a secure, but not air-tight, closure during incubation.
Alfalfa seeds and mung beans. Aseptically weigh 25g alfalfa seeds or mung beans into a sterile 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Aseptically add 225 mL lactose broth to the test portion and swirl the Erlenmeyer flask. Cover the mouth of the Erlenmeyer flask with sterile aluminum foil and allow contents to stand at room temperature for 60 ± 5 min. Adjust the pH of the culture to 6.8 ± 0.2, if necessary. Incubate for 24 ± 2h at 35 ± 2°C. Continue as in D, 1-11, below (treat as high microbial load food).
Fresh leafy green vegetables, herbs and sprouts (baby spinach, cabbage, iceberg lettuce, Romaine lettuce, Spring mix, basil, cilantro, dill, curly parsley, culantro, Italian parsley, watercress, alfalfa, mung bean, clover, radish and broccoli sprouts). Aseptically weigh 25 g into a sterile wide mouth Erlenmeyer flask or other appropriate container. Add 225 mL Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth (for cabbage, adding 225 ml modified buffered peptone water (M192b)) and completely soak contents without any homogenization. Incubate 24 ± 2 h at 35°C. Continue as in D, 1-11, below.
Spent sprout irrigation water from alfalfa, mung bean, and broccoli varieties. Aseptically add 375 ml sample to 1,125 ml Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth in a sterile Whirl-Pak filter bag, or equivalent. Place bag into large container or rack for support during incubation. Mix well by swirling. Incubate 24 ± 2 h at 35 ± 2°C. Continue examination as in D, 1-11, below (treat as a high microbial load food).
Medullary RCC:(A, B) Axial contrast-enhancedCT abdomen images showing bean-type right renal mass centrally located (arrow) with right renal vein and IVC tumoral thrombus (dashed arrow) with liver metastases (arrowhead) (C) CT lung section showing pulmonary metastases
Infiltrative RCC: Axial contrast-enhancedCT image showing heterogeneously enhancing infiltrative RCC (arrow) in left kidney giving a bean-type appearance with enhancing tumoral thrombus in left renal vein (dashed arrow), and IVC (arrowhead)
Incidence rates of prostate cancer are much higher in Northern America, Northern and Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand compared to Asian countries, such as Japan and China, where isoflavone-rich soybeans are common components of the diet (19). Soy food consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer in recent pooled analyses of observational studies (40, 41). In a study of 19 men with prostate cancer, daily soy supplementation resulted in soy isoflavone concentrations six-fold higher in prostate tissue than in serum (42). The results of cell culture and animal studies have suggested a potential role for soy isoflavones in limiting the progression of prostate cancer (reviewed in 43).
Isoflavones are found in small amounts in a number of legumes, grains, and vegetables, but soybeans are by far the most concentrated source of isoflavones in the human diet (144, 145). Average dietary isoflavone intakes in Japan, China, and other Asian countries range from 25 to 50 mg/day (20). Dietary isoflavone intakes are considerably lower in Western countries. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data collected from 36,037 individuals in 10 countries (participating in the EPIC study) showed average isoflavone intakes to be lower than 1 mg/day (146). Compared to other European countries, the isoflavone intake was slightly higher in the British general population (2.3 mg/day) and health-conscious cohort (19.4 mg/day) (146).
Traditional Asian foods made from soybeans include tofu, tempeh, miso, and natto. Edamame refers to varieties of soybeans that are harvested and eaten in their green phase. Soy products that are gaining popularity in Western countries include soy-based meat substitutes, soy milk, soy cheese, and soy yogurt. The isoflavone content of a soy protein isolate depends on the method used to isolate it. Soy protein isolates prepared by an ethanol wash process generally lose most of their associated isoflavones, while those prepared by aqueous wash processes tend to retain them (147). Some foods that are rich in soy isoflavones are listed in Table 1, along with their isoflavone content. Because the isoflavone content of soy foods can vary considerably among brands and among different lots of the same brand (147), these values should be viewed only as a guide. Given the potential health implications of diets rich in soy isoflavones, accurate and consistent labeling of the soy isoflavone content of soy foods is needed. Of note, foods of animal origin also contain low levels of isoflavones (and other phytoestrogens), derived from animal feeds and pastures (148). More information on the isoflavone content of foods is available from the USDA Food Composition Database website and the USDA Database for the Isoflavone Content of Selected Foods report (149). 2b1af7f3a8