The results of the study suggested that locally diversified firms and combination of industrial and geographical diversified firms mitigate earnings management. In support of the earnings equalizing hypothesis, managers of diversified firms have less need for accruals management because diversified firms had more free cash flows which naturally reduces earnings variability. This study also found that diversified firms had no informational asymmetry problems which reject the asymmetric information hypothesis. In addition, debt ratios are also associated with large organizations, but it shows that the more debt ratios are negatively associated with earnings management. Mean comparison test is also conducted, but the results are same as the regression results which does not confirm asymmetric information hypothesis.
This research makes an important contribution to the accounting and management literature by providing new and significantly different evidences on the relative roles of corporate diversification and earnings management.
Despite rapidly growing research concerning nanomaterials in cancer treatment, some issues still remain unsolved. Toxicity is still one of the main concerns of nanomaterials. Because of the extremely small size, physiological barriers can be penetrated through, which may pose potential health hazards . Evidence shows that cellular membranes, organelles, and DNA suffer from free radicals caused by NPs . Nanomaterials delivered intracellularly might stimulate an immune response by reacting with cell surface receptors [244, 245]. As referred to above, nanomaterial toxicity relates to many factors and thus, modification to reduce toxicity is essential in the fabrication process. 2b1af7f3a8