Main Prem Ki Diwani Hoon full movie 480p download 1080pMany of today's optical circuits can be highly complex in their optical signal processing and reconfigurable functions. This has lead to the development of optical processing technology, as well as to the development of optical signal sources and optical detectors that are configurable. However, these same features have also made such devices both difficult to manufacture, as well as to calibrate and characterize.
Of particular interest are tunable semiconductor lasers, which are widely used in optical processing applications, for example, as both optical sources as well as optical detectors. Tunable semiconductor lasers are, for example, commonly used in dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) communication systems to provide a wavelength-specific intensity that can be shared by a number of different fiber optic communications channels. These tunable lasers are inherently complicated devices. In practice, they are configured at a test setup, and then shipped to a customer. The manufacturer typically does not have access to the testing facilities, and does not have access to the customer's optical network. By the time the laser arrives at the customer, the laser is assembled into a network device, and cannot be thoroughly tested. The impact of component variations can be difficult to address, as a customer may perform a number of tests on the laser without knowing the results of the testing.
Another type of tunable semiconductor laser is a distributed Bragg reflector laser. This is a laser with an edge-emitting laser waveguide. An edge-emitting laser waveguide is one that is not surrounded by a confining waveguide layer, such as is needed for a buried-heterostructure laser. Rather, an edge-emitting laser waveguide is a waveguide with end facets that are directly attached to the crystal. An edge-emitting laser waveguide is typically, for example, a semiconductor structure with a planar mirror at each end.
A distributed Bragg reflector laser has many advantages. For example, a distributed Bragg reflector laser can be fabricated to have a specific wavelength over a relatively large wavelength band. Also, because there is no buried heterostructure, the distributed Bragg reflector laser is relatively simple to manufacture. A problem with the distributed Bragg reflector laser is that the manufacturing tolerances are relatively high. The manufacturing tolerances for a distributed Bragg reflector laser are especially high if the laser is configured at a wavelength in the range of 0.3 to 1.7 mic 0b46394aab