The first stage of information system design uses these models during the requirements analysis to describe information needs or the type of information that is to be stored in a database. The data modeling technique can be used to describe any ontology (i.e. an overview and classifications of used terms and their relationships) for a certain area of interest. In the case of the design of an information system that is based on a database, the conceptual data model is, at a later stage (usually called logical design), mapped to a logical data model, such as the relational model; this in turn is mapped to a physical model during physical design. Note that sometimes, both of these phases are referred to as "physical design."
NOTE: When making copies of the seashell pictures from your blackline master, lighten the density of the copies, and if possible, use the photo/text option. If you do not lighten the density, the images will be difficult to see.
This collection of ready-to-use graphic organizers will help children classify ideas and communicate more effectively. All of our printable graphic organizers are designed to facilitate understanding of key concepts by allowing students to visually identify key points and ideas. By using graphic organizers across all subject areas, you will be empowering your students to master subject-matter faster and more efficiently. We have graphic organizers for reading, science, writing, math, and for general classroom use. You'll also find blank printable templates like graph paper, dot arrays, and other useful tools.
Cheryl Rose Tobey and co-authors Carolyn Arline or Emily Fagan have written a series of books on Uncovering Student Thinking About Mathematics in the Common Core for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and high school to help uncover common math misconceptions related to the Common Core math standards. For example, the high school book isUncovering Student Thinking About Mathematics in the Common Core, High School: 25 Formative Assessment Probes.Each book includes diagnostic questions, called formative assessment probes, designed to help educators to then "systematically address conceptual and procedural mistakes," identify struggling learners, and better plan for instruction targeted to mastery of grade level Common Core standards.
"Developing mathematical proficiency requires that students master both the concepts and procedural skills needed to reason and solve problems effectively in a particular domain. Deciding which advanced methods all students should learn to attain proficiency is a policy matter involving judgments about how to use scarce instructional time" (p. 232). Teachers need to maintain a balance "between learner-centered and knowledge-centered needs. The learning path of the class must also continually relate to individual learner knowledge" (p. 235).
Within the classroom, how teaching is organized also matters. Spacing out learning over time with review and quizzing helps learners retain information over the course of the school year and beyond. According to research, such spacing and exposure to concepts and facts should occur on at least two occasions, separated by several weeks or months. Students will learn more when teachers alternate their demonstration of a worked problem with a similar problem that students do for practice. This helps students to learn problem solving strategies, enables them to transfer those strategies more easily, and to solve problems faster. Student learning is improved if teachers connect abstract ideas and concrete contexts via stories, simulations, hands-on activities, visual representations, real-world problem solving, and so on. Teachers can also enhance learning by using higher order questioning and providing opportunities for students to develop explanations. This ranges from creating units of study that provoke question-asking and discussion to simply having students explain their thinking after solving a problem (Pashler, Bain, Bottge, et al., 2007).
Visible Thinking, a project at Harvard University, is a "research-based conceptual framework, which aims to integrate the development of students' thinking with content learning across subject matters" (Overview section). 2b1af7f3a8