Dating of Holocene sediments in shallow coastal areas of the German North Sea by conventional techniques is commonly problematic. In particular the marine reservoir effect of radiocarbon means that radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to sediments younger than about 400 years. Amino acid racemization dating (AAR) is a viable alternative for dating young sediments. The method is based on the determination of ratios of D and L amino acid enantiomers in organic matrices of biogenic carbonates. In this study we use AAR as a tool for dating Holocene barrier islands sediments. Based on an AAR derived chronological framework we develop a model of barrier spit accretion which describes the interaction between extreme events, fair weather coastal processes and sedimentary development that constrains the major episodes of barrier island evolution. The stratigraphy was defined using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys complemented by sedimentological coring data. The stratigraphy is then conceptualised in a AAR chronostratigraphic framework to define a chronological order and allow the development of a stratigraphic model of the evolution of Southern Sylt. The AAR data provide high temporal resolution and have been used for dating stages of barrier spit accretion. The time lines are marked as storm surge generated erosion unconformities in the stratigraphic profile. Individual shells and shell fragments of Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis and Scrobicularia plana have been accumulated by short-term storm events as shell layers associated with the erosion unconformities and have been dated by AAR. Time lines reveal that the barrier spit accretion occurred episodically, and is dependant on the provided rate of sand delivery. The general trend is that sequences young to the. South. The AAR derived time lines have been verified and correlated by historic maps and sea charts. It is apparent that spit enlargement at this site increased significantly during the
The yellow ligaments of the spine are characterized by an exceptionally high content of elastin, a protein with a proved longevity in several human tissues. This unique biochemical composition suggested a suitability of yellow ligaments for age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization (AAR), which was tested by determination of AAR in total tissue specimens and in purified elastin from yellow ligaments of individuals of known age. AAR was found to increase with age in both sample sets. The purified elastin samples exhibited a much faster kinetics than the total tissue, with ca. 3.7-4.6-fold higher apparent rates. The relationship between AAR and age was much closer in the purified elastin samples ( r=0.96-0.99) and it can therefore be used as a basis for biochemical age estimation. The analysis of total tissue samples cannot be recommended since the AAR values can be strongly influenced even by slight, histologically non-detectable variations in the collagen content. Age estimation based on AAR in purified elastin from yellow ligaments may be a valuable additional tool in the identification of unidentified cadavers, especially in cases where other methods cannot be applied (e.g. no available teeth, body parts).
Pediatric emergency physicians must have a high clinical suspicion for atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS), particularly when a child presents with neck pain and an abnormal head posture without the ability to return to a neutral position. As shown in the neurosurgical literature, timely diagnosis and swift initiation of treatment have a greater chance of treatment success for the patient. However, timely treatment is complicated because torticollis can result from a variety of maladies, including: congenital abnormalities involving the C1-C2 joint or the surrounding supporting muscles and ligaments, central nervous system abnormalities, obstetric palsies from brachial plexus injuries, clavicle fractures, head and neck surgery, and infection. The treating pediatrician must discern the etiology of the underlying problem to determine both timing and treatment paradigms, which vary widely between these illnesses. We present a comprehensive review of AARS that is intended for pediatric emergency physicians. Management of AARS can vary widely bases on factors, such as duration of symptoms, as well as the patient's history. The goal of this review is to streamline the management paradigms and provide an inclusive review for pediatric emergency first responders.
The active battlefield is an environment of chaos and confusion. Depending on the scale of combat, the chaos and confusion often extend into the prehospital combat setting with multiple personnel and units involved in the chain of care of casualties. The chaos of the prehospital combat setting has led to limitations in the availability of data for performance improvement and research. The Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Trauma System (JTS) Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) was developed in conjunction with the updated Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) card and a TCCC after action report (AAR), and currently serves as the prehospital repository and module of the DoD Trauma Registry (DoDTR). We conducted a descriptive analysis of data from the DoDTR PHTR. The JTS collected trauma-associated data which comprise the PHTR are consolidated from TCCC cards and TCCC AARs. Where possible (requires 2 patient identifiers), JTS linked data from the PHTR module to other modules in the DoDTR to maximize availability of prehospital data and gain additional information regarding clinical outcomes. From January 2013 through September 2014, there were 705 patients available for research, of which 94.8% (668/705) had data from TCCC AARs, 3.3% (23/705) had data from TCCC cards, and 2.0% (14/705) had data available from DoDTR collection forms. There were one or more of the following data points per subject: pulse rate (77.4%, n=546), blood pressure (75.9%, n=535), respiratory rate (76.5%, n=539), pulse oximetry (61.8%, n=436), mental status (96.0%, n=677) and pain score (24.5%, n=173). Only 42.4% (647/1,527) of vital sign metrics had an associated time stamp. Documented interventions included limb tourniquets, of which only 27.3% (113/414) had an associated documentation of application time. Only 27.0% (190/705) of patients in the PHTR could be linked to the DoDTR due to missing identifiers. The PHTR data capture was suboptimal with many patients lacking documentation of vital
Phylogenetic analysis of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) of all 20 specificities from completely sequenced bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic genomes reveals a complex evolutionary picture. Detailed examination of the domain architecture of aaRSs using sequence profile searches delineated a network of partially conserved domains that is even more elaborate than previously suspected. Several unexpected evolutionary connections were identified, including the apparent origin of the beta-subunit of bacterial GlyRS from the HD superfamily of hydrolases, a domain shared by bacterial AspRS and the B subunit of archaeal glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferases, and another previously undetected domain that is conserved in a subset of ThrRS, guanosine polyphosphate hydrolases and synthetases, and a family of GTPases. Comparison of domain architectures and multiple alignments resulted in the delineation of synapomorphies-shared derived characters, such as extra domains or inserts-for most of the aaRSs specificities. These synapomorphies partition sets of aaRSs with the same specificity into two or more distinct and apparently monophyletic groups. In conjunction with cluster analysis and a modification of the midpoint-rooting procedure, this partitioning was used to infer the likely root position in phylogenetic trees. The topologies of the resulting rooted trees for most of the aaRSs specificities are compatible with the evolutionary "standard model" whereby the earliest radiation event separated bacteria from the common ancestor of archaea and eukaryotes as opposed to the two other possible evolutionary scenarios for the three major divisions of life. For almost all aaRSs specificities, however, this simple scheme is confounded by displacement of some of the bacterial aaRSs by their eukaryotic or, less frequently, archaeal counterparts. Displacement of ancestral eukaryotic aaRS genes by bacterial ones, presumably of mitochondrial origin, was observed for three aaRSs. In contrast 2b1af7f3a8